axios

基于 Promise 的 HTTP 请求客户端,可同时在浏览器和 node.js 中使用

功能特性

  • 在浏览器中发送 XMLHttpRequests 请求
  • 在 node.js 中发送 IT虾米网请求
  • 支持 Promise API
  • 拦截请求和响应
  • 转换请求和响应数据
  • 自动转换 JSON 数据
  • 客户端支持保护安全免受 XSRF 攻击

浏览器支持

IT虾米网

安装

使用 bower:

$ bower install axios 

使用 npm:

$ npm install axios 

例子

发送一个 GET 请求

// Make a request for a user with a given ID 
axios.get('/user?ID=12345') 
  .then(function (response) { 
    console.log(response); 
  }) 
  .catch(function (response) { 
    console.log(response); 
  }); 
  
// Optionally the request above could also be done as 
axios.get('/user', { 
    params: { 
      ID: 12345 
    } 
  }) 
  .then(function (response) { 
    console.log(response); 
  }) 
  .catch(function (response) { 
    console.log(response); 
  });

发送一个 POST 请求

axios.post('/user', { 
    firstName: 'Fred', 
    lastName: 'Flintstone' 
  }) 
  .then(function (response) { 
    console.log(response); 
  }) 
  .catch(function (response) { 
    console.log(response); 
  });

发送多个并发请求

function getUserAccount() { 
  return axios.get('/user/12345'); 
} 
  
function getUserPermissions() { 
  return axios.get('/user/12345/permissions'); 
} 
  
axios.all([getUserAccount(), getUserPermissions()]) 
  .then(axios.spread(function (acct, perms) { 
    // Both requests are now complete 
  }));

axios API

可以通过给 axios传递对应的参数来定制请求:

axios(config)
// Send a POST request 
axios({ 
  method: 'post', 
  url: '/user/12345', 
  data: { 
    firstName: 'Fred', 
    lastName: 'Flintstone' 
  } 
});
axios(url[, config])
// Sned a GET request (default method) 
axios('/user/12345');

请求方法别名

为方便起见,我们为所有支持的请求方法都提供了别名

axios.get(url[, config])
axios.delete(url[, config])
axios.head(url[, config])
axios.post(url[, data[, config]])
axios.put(url[, data[, config]])
axios.patch(url[, data[, config]])
注意

当使用别名方法时, url、 method 和 data 属性不需要在 config 参数里面指定。

并发

处理并发请求的帮助方法

axios.all(iterable)
axios.spread(callback)

创建一个实例

你可以用自定义配置创建一个新的 axios 实例。

axios.create([config])
var instance = axios.create({ 
  baseURL: 'https://some-domain.com/api/', 
  timeout: 1000, 
  headers: {'X-Custom-Header': 'foobar'} 
});

实例方法

所有可用的实例方法都列在下面了,指定的配置将会和该实例的配置合并。

axios#request(config)
axios#get(url[, config])
axios#delete(url[, config])
axios#head(url[, config])
axios#post(url[, data[, config]])
axios#put(url[, data[, config]])
axios#patch(url[, data[, config]])

请求配置

下面是可用的请求配置项,只有 url 是必需的。如果没有指定 method ,默认的请求方法是 GET

{ 
  // `url` is the server URL that will be used for the request 
  url: '/user', 
  
  // `method` is the request method to be used when making the request 
  method: 'get', // default 
  
  // `baseURL` will be prepended to `url` unless `url` is absolute.  
  // It can be convenient to set `baseURL` for an instance of axios to pass relative URLs  
  // to methods of that instance. 
  baseURL: 'https://some-domain.com/api/', 
  
  // `transformRequest` allows changes to the request data before it is sent to the server 
  // This is only applicable for request methods 'PUT', 'POST', and 'PATCH' 
  // The last function in the array must return a string or an ArrayBuffer 
  transformRequest: [function (data) { 
    // Do whatever you want to transform the data 
  
    return data; 
  }], 
  
  // `transformResponse` allows changes to the response data to be made before 
  // it is passed to then/catch 
  transformResponse: [function (data) { 
    // Do whatever you want to transform the data 
  
    return data; 
  }], 
  
  // `headers` are custom headers to be sent 
  headers: {'X-Requested-With': 'XMLHttpRequest'}, 
  
  // `params` are the URL parameters to be sent with the request 
  params: { 
    ID: 12345 
  }, 
  
  // `paramsSerializer` is an optional function in charge of serializing `params` 
  // (e.g. https://www.npmjs.com/package/qs, http://api.jquery.com/jquery.param/) 
  paramsSerializer: function(params) { 
    return Qs.stringify(params, {arrayFormat: 'brackets'}) 
  }, 
  
  // `data` is the data to be sent as the request body 
  // Only applicable for request methods 'PUT', 'POST', and 'PATCH' 
  // When no `transformRequest` is set, must be a string, an ArrayBuffer or a hash 
  data: { 
    firstName: 'Fred' 
  }, 
  
  // `timeout` specifies the number of milliseconds before the request times out. 
  // If the request takes longer than `timeout`, the request will be aborted. 
  timeout: 1000, 
  
  // `withCredentials` indicates whether or not cross-site Access-Control requests 
  // should be made using credentials 
  withCredentials: false, // default 
  
  // `adapter` allows custom handling of requests which makes testing easier. 
  // Call `resolve` or `reject` and supply a valid response (see [response docs](#response-api)). 
  adapter: function (resolve, reject, config) { 
    /* ... */ 
  }, 
  
  // `auth` indicates that HTTP Basic auth should be used, and supplies credentials. 
  // This will set an `Authorization` header, overwriting any existing 
  // `Authorization` custom headers you have set using `headers`. 
  auth: { 
    username: 'janedoe', 
    password: 's00pers3cret' 
  } 
  
  // `responseType` indicates the type of data that the server will respond with 
  // options are 'arraybuffer', 'blob', 'document', 'json', 'text' 
  responseType: 'json', // default 
  
  // `xsrfCookieName` is the name of the cookie to use as a value for xsrf token 
  xsrfCookieName: 'XSRF-TOKEN', // default 
  
  // `xsrfHeaderName` is the name of the http header that carries the xsrf token value 
  xsrfHeaderName: 'X-XSRF-TOKEN', // default 
  
  // `progress` allows handling of progress events for 'POST' and 'PUT uploads' 
  // as well as 'GET' downloads 
  progress: function(progressEvent) { 
    // Do whatever you want with the native progress event 
  } 
}

响应的数据结构

响应的数据包括下面的信息:

{ 
  // `data` is the response that was provided by the server 
  data: {}, 
  
  // `status` is the HTTP status code from the server response 
  status: 200, 
  
  // `statusText` is the HTTP status message from the server response 
  statusText: 'OK', 
  
  // `headers` the headers that the server responded with 
  headers: {}, 
  
  // `config` is the config that was provided to `axios` for the request 
  config: {} 
}

当使用 then 或者 catch 时, 你会收到下面的响应:

axios.get('/user/12345') 
  .then(function(response) { 
    console.log(response.data); 
    console.log(response.status); 
    console.log(response.statusText); 
    console.log(response.headers); 
    console.log(response.config); 
});

默认配置

你可以为每一个请求指定默认配置。

全局 axios 默认配置

axios.defaults.baseURL = 'https://api.example.com'; 
axios.defaults.headers.common['Authorization'] = AUTH_TOKEN; 
axios.defaults.headers.post['Content-Type'] = 'application/x-www-form-urlencoded';

自定义实例默认配置

// Set config defaults when creating the instance 
var instance = axios.create({ 
  baseURL: 'https://api.example.com' 
}); 
  
// Alter defaults after instance has been created 
instance.defaults.headers.common['Authorization'] = AUTH_TOKEN;

配置的优先顺序

Config will be merged with an order of precedence. The order is library defaults found in lib/defaults.js, then defaults property of the instance, and finally config argument for the request. The latter will take precedence over the former. Here's an example.

// Create an instance using the config defaults provided by the library 
// At this point the timeout config value is `0` as is the default for the library 
var instance = axios.create(); 
  
// Override timeout default for the library 
// Now all requests will wait 2.5 seconds before timing out 
instance.defaults.timeout = 2500; 
  
// Override timeout for this request as it's known to take a long time 
instance.get('/longRequest', { 
  timeout: 5000 
}); 

拦截器

你可以在处理 then 或 catch 之前拦截请求和响应

// 添加一个请求拦截器 
axios.interceptors.request.use(function (config) { 
    // Do something before request is sent 
    return config; 
  }, function (error) { 
    // Do something with request error 
    return Promise.reject(error); 
  }); 
  
// 添加一个响应拦截器 
axios.interceptors.response.use(function (response) { 
    // Do something with response data 
    return response; 
  }, function (error) { 
    // Do something with response error 
    return Promise.reject(error); 
  });

移除一个拦截器:

var myInterceptor = axios.interceptors.request.use(function () {/*...*/}); 
axios.interceptors.request.eject(myInterceptor);

你可以给一个自定义的 axios 实例添加拦截器:

var instance = axios.create(); 
instance.interceptors.request.use(function () {/*...*/});

错误处理

axios.get('/user/12345') 
  .catch(function (response) { 
    if (response instanceof Error) { 
      // Something happened in setting up the request that triggered an Error 
      console.log('Error', response.message); 
    } else { 
      // The request was made, but the server responded with a status code 
      // that falls out of the range of 2xx 
      console.log(response.data); 
      console.log(response.status); 
      console.log(response.headers); 
      console.log(response.config); 
    } 
  });

Promises

axios 依赖一个原生的 ES6 Promise 实现,如果你的浏览器环境不支持 ES6 Promises,你需要引入 polyfill

TypeScript

axios 包含一个 TypeScript 定义

/// <reference path="axios.d.ts" /> 
import * as axios from 'axios'; 
axios.get('/user?ID=12345');

Credits

axios is heavily inspired by the IT虾米网 provided in Angular. Ultimately axios is an effort to provide a standalone $http-like service for use outside of Angular.

License

MIT


发布评论
IT序号网

微信公众号号:IT虾米 (左侧二维码扫一扫)欢迎添加!

HTML5的Video标签的属性,方法和事件汇总知识解答
你是第一个吃螃蟹的人
发表评论

◎欢迎参与讨论,请在这里发表您的看法、交流您的观点。